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Photovoltaic cells, by their very nature, convert radiation to electricity. This phenomenon has been known for well over half a century, but until recently the amounts of electricity generated were good for little more than measuring radiation intensity. Most of the photovoltaic cells on the market today operate at an efficiency of less than 15%2; that is, of all the radiation that falls upon them, less than 15% of it is converted to electricity. The maximum theoretical efficiency for a photovoltaic cell is only 32.3%3, but at this efficiency, solar electricity is very economical. Most of our other forms of electricity generation are at a lower efficiency than this. Unfortunately, reality still lags behind theory and a 15% efficiency is not usually considered economical by most power companies, even if it is fine for toys and pocket calculators. Hope for bulk solar electricity should not be abandoned, however, for recent scientific advances have created a solar cell with an efficiency of 28.2%4 efficiency in the laboratory. This type of cell has yet to be field tested. If it maintains its efficiency in the uncontrolled environment of the outside world, and if it does not have a tendency to break down, it will be economical for power companies to build solar power facilities after all.

The advantages of the solar panel:
1.Solar energy is free although there is a cost in the building of ‘collectors’ and other equipment required to convert solar energy into electricity or hot water.
2. Solar energy does not cause pollution. However, solar collectors and other associated equipment / machines are manufactured in factories that in turn cause some pollution.
3. Solar energy can be used in remote areas where it is too expensive to extend the electricity power grid.
4. Many everyday items such as calculators and other low power consuming devices can be powered by solar energy effectively.
5. It is estimated that the worlds oil reserves will last for 30 to 40 years. On the other hand, solar energy is infinite (forever).

The disadvantages of the solar panel:
1.Solar energy can only be harnessed when it is daytime and sunny.
2. Solar collectors, panels and cells are relatively expensive to manufacture although prices are falling rapidly.
3. Solar power stations can be built but they do not match the power output of similar sized conventional power stations. They are also very expensive.
4. In countries such as the UK, the unreliable climate means that solar energy is also unreliable as a source of energy. Cloudy skies reduce its effectiveness.
5. Large areas of land are required to capture the suns energy. Collectors are usually arranged together especially when electricity is to be produced and used in the same location.
6. Solar power is used to charge batteries so that solar powered devices can be used at night. However, the batteries are large and heavy and need storage space. They also need replacing from time to time.

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                  Monocrystalline Solar Panel                                                 Polycrystalline silicon solar panels
 

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Type SN-S250W Solar Panel
Maximum Power 250W
Maximum Power voltage 36V
Maximum Power current 6.9A
Open circuit voltage 43V
Short circuit current 4.27A
Cell efficiency 13.33%
Module efficiency 11.75%
size of modul 1685*982*50
Frame Material Alloy frame,46mm TH
number of cells 72pcs
size of cells 125mm×125mm
Weight per piece (Kg) 25kg
type of junction box PV
cable type and length connector typ PV cable, 0.9m, Plug and socket
maximum system voltage 1000V
Temperature coefficient of Isc +0.05%/℃
Temperature coefficient of Voc -0.34%/℃
Temperature coefficient of power -0.5%/℃
Temperature coefficient of Im +0.05%/℃
Temperature coefficient of Vm -0.34%/℃
Nominal operating cell temperature 47℃(+2℃)
Wind Bearing 60m/s(200kg/sq.m)
Impact Resistance Hail Impact Test 227g steel ball fall down from 1m height
Quality guarantee CE、TUV,3 years products warranty and 25 years 80%of power
FF 68%---72%
Tolerance Wattage(e.g.+/-3%) +/-5%
Surface maximum load capacity 60m/s
Output tolerance +/-5%
Standard test conditions AM1.5 100mw/cm²

 

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